Here is an excellent question asked by Liza on “Mathoverflow“.
What is the explanation of the apparent randomness of high-level phenomena in nature? For example the distribution of females vs. males in a population (I am referring to randomness in terms of the unpredictability and not in the sense of it necessarily having to be evenly distributed).
1. Is it accepted that these phenomena are not really random, meaning that given enough information one could predict it? If so isn’t that the case for all random phenomena?
2. If there is true randomness and the outcome cannot be predicted – what is the origin of that randomness? (is it a result of the randomness in the micro world – quantum phenomena etc…)
Where can I find resources about the subject?
Some answers and links can be found below the question in MO. (The question was closed after a few hours.) More answers and further discussion are welcome here.
And here is a related post on probability by Peter Cameron relating to the question “what is probability”.