My beloved mother Carmella Kalai passed away last week.
With me, 1956
My father Hanoch Kalai, my mother Carmella, My sister Tamar (Tami) and me around 1957). Continue reading
My beloved mother Carmella Kalai passed away last week.
With me, 1956
My father Hanoch Kalai, my mother Carmella, My sister Tamar (Tami) and me around 1957). Continue reading
Joram Lindenstrauss 19362012
This week our local Institute of Advanced Study holds a memorial conference for Joram Lindenstrauss. Joram was an immensely powerful mathematician, in terms of originality and conceptual vision, in terms of technical power, in terms of courage to confront difficult problems, in terms of clarity and elegance, and in terms of influence and leadership. Joram was a dear teacher and a dear colleague and I greatly miss him.
One nice anecdote that I heard in the conference was about the ceremony where Joram received the Israel Prize. When he shook the hand of the Israeli president, Itzhak Navon, Navon told him: “If you have a little time please drop by to tell me sometime what Banach spaces are.” Next Joram shook the hand of prime minister Menchem Begin who overheard the comment and told Joram: “If you have a little time please do not drop by to tell me sometime what Banach spaces are.”
Andrei Zelevinsky passed away a week ago on April 10, 2013, shortly after turning sixty. Andrei was a great mathematician and a great person. I first met him in a combinatorics conference in Stockholm 1989. This was the first major conference in combinatorics (and perhaps in all of mathematics) with massive participation of mathematicians from the Soviet Union, and it was a meeting point for east and west and for different areas of combinatorics. The conference was organized by Anders Björner who told me that Andrei played an essential role helping to get the Russians to come. One anecdote I remember from the conference was that Isreal Gelfand asked Anders to compare the quality of his English with that of Andrei. “Isreal”, told him Anders politely, “your English is very good, but I must say that Andrei’s English is a touch better.” Gelfand was left speechless for a minute and then asked again: “But then, how is my English compared with Vera’s?” In 1993, Andrei participated in a combinatorics conference that I organized in Jerusalem (see pictures below), and we met on various occasions since then. Andrei wrote a popular blog (mainly) in Russian Avzel’s journal. Beeing referred there once as an “esteemed colleague” (высокочтимым коллегой) and another time as “Gilushka” demonstrates the width of our relationship.
Let me mention three things from Andrei’s mathematical work.
Andrei is famous for the BernsteinZelevinsky theory. Bernstein and Zelevinsky classified the irreducible complex representations of a general linear group over a local field in terms of cuspidal representations. The case of GL(2) was carried out in the famous book by JacquetLanglands, and the theory for GL(n) and all reductive groups was a major advance in representation theory.
The second thing I would like to mention is Andrei’s work with Gelfand and Kapranov on genaralized hypergeometric functions. To get some impression on the GKZ theory you may look at the BAMS’ book review of their book written by Fabrizio Catanese. This work is closely related to the study of toric varieties, and it introduced the secondary polytopes. The secondary polytopes is a polytope whose vertices correspond to (certain) triangulations of a polytope P. When P is a polygon then the secondary polytope is the associahedron (also known as the Stasheff polytope).
The third topic is the amazing cluster algebras. Andrei Zelevinsky and Sergey Fomin invented cluster algebras which turned out to be an extremely rich mathematical object with deep and important connections to many areas, a few are listed in Andrei’s short introduction (mentioned below): quiver representations, preprojective algebras, CalabiYau algebras and categories, Teichmüller theory, discrete integrable systems, Poisson geometry, and we can add also, Somos sequences, alternating sign matrices, and, yet again, to associahedra and related classes of polytopes. A good place to start learning about cluster algebras is Andrei’s article from the Notices of the AMS: “What is a cluster algebra.” The cluster algebra portal can also be useful to keep track. And here is a very nice paper with a wide perspective called “integrable combinatorics” by Phillippe Di Francesco. I should attempt a separate post for cluster algebras.
Andrei was a wonderful person and mathematician and I will miss him.
Mandelbrot set
Benoît Mandelbrot passed away a few dayes ago on October 14, 2010. Since 1987, Mandelbrot was a member of the Yale’s mathematics department. This chapterette from my book “Gina says: Adventures in the Blogosphere String War” about fractals is brought here on this sad occasion.
A little demonstration of Mandelbrot’s impact: when you search in Google for an image for “Mandelbrot” do not get pictures of Mandelbrot himself but rather pictures of Mandelbrot’s creation. You get full pages of beautiful pictures of Mandelbrot sets
Benoit Mandelbrot (19242010)
Modeling physics by continuous smooth mathematical objects have led to the most remarkable achievements of science in the last centuries. The interplay between smooth geometry and stochastic processes is also a very powerfull and fruitful idea. Mandelbrot’s realization of the prominence of fractals and his works on their study can be added to this short list of major paradigms in mathematical modeling of real world phenomena.
Fractals are beautiful mathematical objects whose study goes back to the late 19th century. The Sierpiński triangle and the Koch snowflake are early examples of fractals which are constructed by simple recursive rules. Continue reading
I came across a videotaped lecture by Itamar Pitowsky given at PITP some years ago on the question of probability in physics that we discussed in two earlier posts on randomness in nature (I, II). There are links below to the presentation slides, and to a video of the lecture.
A little over a week ago on Thursday, Itamar, Oron Shagrir, and I sat at our little CS cafeteria and discussed this very same issue. What does probability mean? Does it just represent human uncertainty? Is it just an emerging mathematical concept which is convenient for modeling? Do matters change when we move from classical to quantum mechanics? When we move to quantum physics the notion of probability itself changes for sure, but is there a change in the interpretation of what probability is? A few people passed by and listened, and it felt like this was a direct continuation of conversations we had while we (Itamar and I; Oron is much younger) were students in the early 70s. This was our last meeting and Itamar’s deep voice and good smile are still with me.
In spite of his illness of many years Itamar looked in good shape. A day later, on Friday, he met with a graduate student working on connections between philosophy and computer science. Yet another exciting new frontier. Last Wednesday Itamar passed away from sudden complications related to his illness.
Itamar was a great guy; he was great in science and great in the humanities, and he had an immense human wisdom and a modest, levelheaded way of expressing it. I will greatly miss him.
Here is a link to a Condolence page for Itamar Pitowsky
Probability in physics: where does it come from? 

(Here is the original link to the PIPS lecture) My post entitled Amazing possibilities about various fundamental limitations stated by many great minds that turned out to be wrong, was largely based on examples provided by Itamar.
Three dear friends, colleagues, and teachers Lior Tzafriri, Aryeh Dvoretzky and Michael Maschler passed away last year. I want to tell you a little about their mathematics.
Lior Tzafriri ( 19362008 )
Lior Tzafriri worked in functional analysis.
I just heard the terrible news that Oded Schramm was killed in a hiking accident. Oded was hiking on Guye Peak near Snoqualmie Pass near Seattle. This is a terrible loss to Oded’s family, and our hearts and thoughts are with his wife Avivit and children Tselil and Pele. This is a great personal loss to me, to his many friends, and to mathematics.