“Climate model simulations are also sensitive to initial conditions (even in an average sense). Coupling a nonlinear, chaotic atmospheric model to a nonlinear, chaotic ocean model gives rise to something much more complex than the deterministic chaos of the weather model, particularly under conditions of transient forcing (such as the case for increasing concentrations of CO2). Coupled atmosphere/ocean modes of internal variability arise on timescales of weeks, years, decades, centuries and millenia. These coupled modes give rise to bifurcation, instability and chaos. How to characterize such phenomena arising from transient forcing of the coupled atmosphere/ocean system defies classification by current theories of nonlinear dynamical systems, particularly in situations involving transient changes of parameter values. Stainforth et al. (2007) refer to this situation as ‘pandemonium.'”

It’s embarrassing me.

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